Funaria life cycle Class 11 Biology. Back to categories. Occurrence l The genus Funaria comprises species. In India, it is represented by 15 species. The following diagram gives one example of a bryophyte life cycle, that of the moss Funaria hygrometrica. click to enlarge ยท Print this diagram as. Funaria hygrometrica – life cycle. Gametophyte. Spores. Protonema. Sporophytes . See. SEP. A recently germinated spore with a rudimentary protonema. spore.

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Just below the constriction there is a diaphragm rim. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes.

It is made up of long, narrow thin walled dead cells which lack protoplasm. These serve for anchorage to the substrate and water uptake, but they are no true roots.

Mosses (Overview)

General characteristics of mosses. Androcytes ooze out in the form of a viscous fluid through this pore.

The life cycle of Funaria funarai haplo-diplontic type. It is made up to parenchymatous cells. Hornworts The Hornworts resemble the Liverworts, but they look more like real plantlets. Annulus is ring like cell separates operculum and Theca. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Seta is a long stalk with a pear-shaped capsule by its tip.

Life Cycle of Funaria (With Diagram) | Bryopsida

Development of fertile theca region middle portion of young capsule: The main shoot of the leafy gametophore bears antheridia and act as male branch. Thus in Funaria the neck canal cells have double origin lower and middle neck canal cells in the neck canal are derived from the primary neck canal cell while those in the upper portion of neck are derived from the primary cover cell. Root like structures called rhizoids are present.


Air spaces are traversed by green cells chlorenchymatous cells called trabecular elongated parenchymatous cells. This layer divides periclinally to form two layers of 32 cells. Sphagnum, Polytrichum, Funaria The true mosses have an architecture with a distinct stem-like and leaf-like appearance although they do not have true stems, nor leaves, or roots or tissues!

Mosses (Overview)

They are the common moss, also known as cord moss or green moss. It cuts off three lateral segments and one basal segment. The venter wall is two layered and encloses lige canal liffe and egg cell. Capsule has 3 parts-basal apophysis, central theca and terminal operculum.

A cross section through the upper portion of the young sporogonium shows a two identical segments Fig. In this article we will discuss about the g ametophytic phase, reproduction and sporophytic phase in the life cycle of funaria. This stage is characterised by regular branching tunaria cell walls, oblique cross walls and fewer chloroplasts. Each cell of the quadrant divides by anticlinal wall Fig. It forms velvety tufts on moist ground, rocks, tree trunks, under shade etc.

These are present below the air spaces on either side of the columella. The spore caps have grooves see example A ; after opening of the caps the spores are released within a few hours. The oospore divides and redivides to form embryo. Union of male and female nuclei is complete within 10 hours. Magill Funaria clavellata Mitt. According to this most recent insight, the following groups are distinguished: On the return of favourable conditions gemmae germinate and form new plants.


During unfavorable conditions, the terminal cells of the protonemal branches divide by transverse, longitudinal divisions and form green multicellular bodies of cells Fig. Only the haploid, dominant gametophyte can survive for longer periods and lkfe found extensively in the field.

The terminal cell of paraphyses is not swollen.

Moss have no flowers or reproductive cones, nor fruits and seeds. It is composed of two to three layers of radially elongated pitted cells. The amphithecium divides by periclinal division to form two concentric layers. Williams Funaria maireana Copp. It is bounded by the single layered epidermis which is interrupted by stomata.

Single-cell and multicellular rhizoids resembling root hairs can be found. Explain the causes and symptoms of kidney stone. Funaria jamesonii Taylor Taylor Funaria japonica Broth. Therefore, the sporophyte of Funaria is partially dependent on gametophyte. The four cells of the endothecium also divides similarly to amphithecium. The outer primary cover cell functions as aplical cell with four cutting faces three lateral and one basal. When young the cells of the jacket contain chloroplasts which turn orange or reddish brown at maturity.

It bears large number of reddish brown or orange antheridia in different stages of development. Frequently, the gametophyte undergoes vegetative propagation to form a succession of the gametophyte generations before the sporophyte generation develops. The outermost layer is thick walled and called epidermis.